depression brain aging

Depression speeds up brain aging, find psychologists

Psychologists have found a link between depression and an acceleration of the rate at which the brain ages

May 24, 2018

Science Daily/University of Sussex

Psychologists at the University of Sussex have found a link between depression and an acceleration of the rate at which the brain ages. Although scientists have previously reported that people with depression or anxiety have an increased risk of dementia in later life, this is the first study that provides comprehensive evidence for the effect of depression on decline in overall cognitive function (also referred to as cognitive state), in a general population.

 

For the study, published today, Thursday 24 May 2018, in the journal Psychological Medicine, researchers conducted a robust systematic review of 34 longitudinal studies, with the focus on the link between depression or anxiety and decline in cognitive function over time. Evidence from more than 71,000 participants was combined and reviewed. Including people who presented with symptoms of depression as well as those that were diagnosed as clinically depressed, the study looked at the rate of decline of overall cognitive state -- encompassing memory loss, executive function (such as decision making) and information processing speed -- in older adults.

 

Importantly, any studies of participants who were diagnosed with dementia at the start of study were excluded from the analysis. This was done in order to assess more broadly the impact of depression on cognitive ageing in the general population. The study found that people with depression experienced a greater decline in cognitive state in older adulthood than those without depression. As there is a long pre-clinical period of several decades before dementia may be diagnosed, the findings are important for early interventions as currently there is no cure for the disease.

 

Lead authors of the paper, Dr Darya Gaysina and Amber John from the EDGE (Environment, Development, Genetics and Epigenetics in Psychology and Psychiatry) Lab at the University of Sussex, are calling for greater awareness of the importance of supporting mental health to protect brain health in later life.

 

Dr Gaysina, a Lecturer in Psychology and EDGE Lab Lead, comments: "This study is of great importance -- our populations are ageing at a rapid rate and the number of people living with decreasing cognitive abilities and dementia is expected to grow substantially over the next thirty years.

 

"Our findings should give the government even more reason to take mental health issues seriously and to ensure that health provisions are properly resourced. We need to protect the mental wellbeing of our older adults and to provide robust support services to those experiencing depression and anxiety in order to safeguard brain function in later life."

 

Researcher Amber John, who carried out this research for her PhD at the University of Sussex adds: "Depression is a common mental health problem -- each year, at least 1 in 5 people in the UK experience symptoms. But people living with depression shouldn't despair -- it's not inevitable that you will see a greater decline in cognitive abilities and taking preventative measures such as exercising, practicing mindfulness and undertaking recommended therapeutic treatments, such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, have all been shown to be helpful in supporting wellbeing, which in turn may help to protect cognitive health in older age."

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180524081735.htm

Depression linked to memory problems and brain aging

May 9, 2018

Science Daily/American Academy of Neurology

Depression in older adults may be linked to memory problems, according to new research. The study also showed that older people with greater symptoms of depression may have structural differences in the brain compared to people without symptoms.

 

"Since symptoms of depression can be treated, it may be possible that treatment may also reduce thinking and memory problems," said study author Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, PhD, MS, of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida. "With as many as 25 percent of older adults experiencing symptoms of depression, it's important to better understand the relationship between depression and memory problems."

 

The study involved 1,111 people who were all stroke-free with an average age of 71. The majority were Caribbean Hispanic. At the beginning of the study, all had brain scans, a psychological exam and assessments for memory and thinking skills. Their memory and thinking skills were tested again an average of five years later.

 

At the start of the study, 22 percent of participants had greater symptoms of depression. This was defined as a score of 16 or higher on a test with a range of 0-60, which is considered at risk for clinical depression. For the test, participants reported how often in the past week they agreed with statements such as "I was bothered by things that usually don't bother me" and "I did not feel like eating." Researchers found after adjusting for age, race, anti-depressive medications, and other variables, greater symptoms of depression were linked to worse episodic memory. Scores on tests were lower by 0.21 of a standard deviation compared to those without greater symptoms of depression. Episodic memory is a person's ability to remember specific experiences and events.

 

Researchers also found those with greater symptoms of depression had differences in the brain including smaller brain volume as well as a 55 percent greater chance of small vascular lesions in the brain.

 

Researchers found no evidence of a relationship between greater symptoms of depression and changes in thinking skills over five years.

 

"Small vascular lesions in the brain are markers of small vessel disease, a condition in which the walls in the small blood vessels are damaged," said Zeki Al Hazzouri. "Our research suggests that depression and brain aging may occur simultaneously, and greater symptoms of depression may affect brain health through small vessel disease."

 

Zeki Al Hazzouri noted that the study provides information about depression and memory and thinking skills, especially among people who identified as Hispanic, who have been insufficiently studied in previous studies on the topic, even though they can be at increased risk of dementia in late life.

 

Limitations of the study include that participants had to be healthy enough to have an MRI, so they may have been healthier than the general population. Also, the study was over a five-year period, which may not have been long enough to capture meaningful changes in thinking and memory abilities over time.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180509162704.htm

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